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Dennoch trifft sich der zuständige Minister mit Abgeordneten, die genau das fordern. Die mögliche Idee dahinter: ein Deal mit Labour, um ein Desaster zu verhindern.
Angesichts eines drohenden Chaos-Brexit hat die britische Premierministerin May eine Fristverlängerung ins Spiel gebracht. Doch Experten des Bundestags haben schwere Bedenken.
Die britische Regierungschefin versucht, die Frist für den Brexit zu verlängern. Das ist allerdings nicht nur politisches Kalkül, May macht offenbar auch ein internes Gutachten über drastische Folgen eines No Deal Angst.
Aus dem EU-Parlament kommt hingegen eine Warnung. Schon lange gärt es in der Labour-Party. Sie wollen das Vertrauen der Briten in das politischen System wiederherstellen.
Auch für die Tories kann es jetzt gefährlich werden. Theresa May fordert Nachverhandlungen, um den ungeregelten Brexit zu vermeiden.
Doch für Angebote seitens der EU ist es noch zu früh. Im Brexit-Streit übernimmt das britische Parlament die Regierungsgeschäfte.
Ein beispielloser Vorgang in der politischen Geschichte des Landes. Worum es geht, wer sich als Sieger sieht — und warum es nach einer möglichen Zustimmung Londons mit Verhandlungen erst richtig los geht.
Sie hat nun eine Einigung mit Brüssel erzielt. Aber der Inhalt ist vage, und genau das ist die Gefahr. Ausland Türkei Erdogans Traum von der Superwaffe.
Der türkische Präsident will sein Land zum Rüstungsriesen machen, Kampfhubschrauber, Panzer und Kriegsschiffe produziert es bereits.
Das bedeutet neues Ungemach für die Kanzlerin. Ihr Auftritt mit neu erwachtem Kampfgeist hat ihre Position gestärkt — zumindest vorerst.
In einem Punkt enttäuscht er allerdings seine Getreuen. Migration Europas neue Härte in der Asylpolitik. Italiens rechtsnationaler Innenminister Matteo Salvini plant eine drastische Änderung des Asylrechts, um mehr Abschiebungen zu ermöglichen.
Auch andere EU-Staaten haben längst Neuregelungen verabschiedet. Ein Überblick. Allerdings können die Könige des Landes schon lange nicht mehr viel bestimmen.
Das bedeutet in der Wirklichkeit, dass das Parlament am wichtigsten ist. Das Parlament macht die Gesetze.
Es besteht aus zwei Kammern, also zwei Teilen: das Unterhaus und das Oberhaus. Ein Sitz im Oberhaus war früher nur den Adligen und Bischöfen vorbehalten.
Wichtiger ist aber das Unterhaus. Meistens gewinnt eine der beiden Parteien bei den Wahlen so klar, dass sie viele Mitglieder im Unterhaus bekommt.
Die Königin ernennt dann den Chef dieser Partei zum Regierungschef. Man nennt ihn Premierminister. Der Premierminister sucht sich dann seine Minister aus.
Jeder von ihnen leitet eine der zwanzig Abteilungen, genannt Ministerium. Die gesamte Regierung trägt den Namen Kabinett. Etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Menschen war für den Austritt, den Brexit.
In der Zeit des Britischen Weltreiches verbreitete sich die englische Sprache. Englisch ist heute eine der wichtigsten, wenn nicht sogar die wichtigste Sprache der Welt.
William Shakespeare ist der berühmteste Schriftsteller Englands und vielleicht der Welt, und die Beatles sind die erfolgreichsten Musiker des Landes.
Deshalb gibt es heute in Ländern wie Indien weit verzweigte Eisenbahnnetze. Die meisten Eisenbahnen der Welt fahren heute links, weil das in England so war.
Die Nationalmannschaft vom Landesteil England wurde bisher einmal Weltmeister. Andere Sportarten spielt man höchstens in Ländern, die zum Britischen Weltreich gehört haben.
Beispiele dafür sind Rugby und Cricket. Heute wird aber kaum noch Kohle abgebaut, und man stellt im Land immer weniger Waren her.
Darum sind viele Menschen arbeitslos oder verdienen wenig, besonders im Norden von England. Besonders wichtig sind heute die Dienstleistungen, und da vor allem der sogenannte Finanzsektor.
Gemeint sind Banken und andere Unternehmen, die mit Geld handeln. In London befindet sich die wichtige Londoner Börse, wo mit Aktien gehandelt wird.
Es kommen auch ziemlich viele Touristen ins Land, fast 30 Millionen jedes Jahr. Wahrscheinlich gehen viele Arbeitsplätze verloren, und das Land wird ärmer.
Wales said he would fly to China to lobby the Chinese government to unlock the site within two weeks at the Leadership Energy Summit Asia in Kuala Lumpur on 2 December The government of the People's Republic of China completely blocked all language versions of the site again on the afternoon of 4 December local time.
Wales said that this was the first time they met and there was no consensus on specific issues, but that the purpose of the meeting was for the two to "meet and know each other".
When a reporter asked if he would order Wikipedia to hide some information to maintain stable operations in China, he responded "Never.
However, in the official translation, his statement was that such improvements will help governments to better analyze online communications.
On 23 April , all versions of Wikipedia were blocked in China. The agency attempted to have the article about the facility removed from the French Wikipedia.
This volunteer, which was one of those having access to the tools that allow the deletion of pages, was forced to delete the article while in the DCRI offices, on the understanding that he would have been held in custody and prosecuted if he did not comply.
Under pressure, he had no other choice than to delete the article, despite explaining to the DCRI this is not how Wikipedia works.
He warned the other sysops that trying to undelete the article would engage their responsibility before the law.
This volunteer had no link with that article, having never edited it and not even knowing of its existence before entering the DCRI offices.
He was chosen and summoned because he was easily identifiable, given his regular promotional actions of Wikipedia and Wikimedia projects in France.
Later, the article was restored by another Wikipedia contributor who lived outside France, in Switzerland. According to a judicial source quoted in an AFP story on 8 April, the article's deletion "was performed as part of a preliminary inquiry" led by the "anti-terrorist section of the Paris prosecutor's office" on the grounds that the French language Wikipedia article compromised "classified material related to the chain of transmission for nuclear launch orders".
The organisation's spokesperson told Le Point that, "if the institution considers that secret defence information has been released, it has every opportunity to be recognised by the courts in arguing and clarifying its application.
It is then up to the judge, the protector of fundamental freedoms, to assess the reality and extent of military secrecy. The court order was a temporary injunction in a case filed by politician Lutz Heilmann over claims regarding his past involvement with the former German Democratic Republic 's intelligence service Stasi.
In a November report published by the Center for Global Communication Studies of the University of Pennsylvania , researchers Collin Anderson and Nima Nazeri scanned , Persian language Wikipedia articles and found that the Iranian government blocks of these pages.
According to the authors, "Censors repeatedly targeted Wikipedia pages about government rivals, minority religious beliefs, and criticisms of the state, officials, and the police.
Just under half of the blocked Wiki-pages are biographies, including pages about individuals the authorities have allegedly detained or killed.
In , the Wikipedia software migrated to HTTPS protocol, leaving the Iranian government with no choice but to either block it completely or not block it at all.
Iran chose the latter. Wikimedia Commons was blocked during the first half of , but the block was lifted since then. For seven hours on 31 March , the entire domain of Wikipedia.
On 5 April , the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media also known as Roskomnadzor confirmed that Wikipedia was blacklisted, stating that it had been "for a long time.
I don't know why it's only now that they've woken up". Wikipedia representatives said if access was restricted, they would file a complaint to the prosecutor's office against Roskomnadzor and appeal the decision.
Roskomnadzor explained that they had "been informed by the Federal Drug Control Service that sufficient edits were made that met the conditions of court order".
On 11 July , the Saudi government blocked access to Google and Wikipedia for what it said was sexual and politically sensitive content.
Access to the Arabic Wikipedia was blocked in Syria between 30 April and 13 February , although other language editions remained accessible.
The Wikipedia website was inaccessible from Tunisia between 23 and 27 November In the early hours of 29 April , monitoring group Turkey Blocks identified loss of access to all language editions of Wikipedia throughout Turkey.
There was no court decision for this censorship. Katherine Maher from the Wikimedia Foundation said this did not reflect the truth.
In December the Constitutional Court of Turkey ruled that the two and a half-year block was unconstitutional.
On 15 January it was reported to the Wikimedia Foundation Wikipedia's parent organisation that access to the website was being restored.
In December , the Internet Watch Foundation , a UK-based non-government organization , added the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer to its internet blacklist due to the album cover's image and the illegality of child pornography in that country; the image had been assessed by IWF as being the lowest level of legal concern: "erotic posing with no sexual activity".
Following discussion, representations by the Wikimedia Foundation,  and public complaints,  the IWF reversed their decision three days later, and confirmed that in future they would not block copies of the same image that were hosted overseas.
The entirety of Wikipedia was briefly blocked twice in Uzbekistan, in and Users in Uzbekistan could easily open Wikipedia articles in other languages.
Only Uzbek-language articles were blocked. In the evening of 12 January , the NetBlocks internet observatory had collected technical evidence of the blocking of all editions of Wikipedia in Venezuela.
The restrictions were being implemented by CANTV , the largest telecommunications provider in the country. NetBlocks identified a major network disruption affecting the telecommunications infrastructure, which coincided with other restrictions affecting Venezuelans' ability to communicate and access information during the previous 24 hours.
The collected data also showed that a number of local websites had been recently restricted, indicating that recent political instability could be the underlying cause  for what may be a tightening regime of internet control.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about censorship of Wikipedia by governments. For censorship within Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored.
For Wikipedia's policies on blocking users, see WP:Blocking policy. Further information: Internet censorship in China.
Further information: Internet censorship in France. Further information: Internet censorship in Iran.
Further information: Internet censorship in Pakistan. Further information: Internet censorship in Russia. Further information: Internet censorship in Saudi Arabia.
Further information: Internet censorship in Syria. Further information: Internet censorship in Tunisia.
Main article: Block of Wikipedia in Turkey. Turkey blocks Wikipedia, alleging smear campaign. Further information: Internet censorship in Uzbekistan.
Main article: Block of Wikipedia in Venezuela. See also: Censorship in Venezuela. Berkman Klein Center. Archived from the original on 20 September Retrieved 20 September Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 22 September That's Beijing.
Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 24 April Open Observatory of Network Interference.
Retrieved 7 May The following chart, based on OONI data, illustrates that multiple language editions of Wikipedia have been blocked in China as of April Public Television Service.
Retrieved 20 May The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 23 December CBS News.
Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 August International Freedom of Expression Exchange.
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Archived from the original on 26 March Archived from the original on 24 June Archived from the original on 30 September Archived from the original on 9 March Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 26 January The Inquirer.
Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 3 April The Register. Retrieved 31 July Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 13 June American Economic Review.
Jun , Vol. The Johns Hopkins News-Letter. Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 23 November Huffington Post. United States.
Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 6 December China Digital Times.
Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 29 December South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 22 March Ming Pao.
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Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 7 April Heise Online in German. Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 5 April Le Point in French.
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Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 10 April Center for Internet and Society Blog. Stanford University Law School.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 25 August Times of India.
Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 17 May Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 5 June Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 13 April Karachi Metblogs.
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RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 10 April Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 4 August The Independent.
Archived from the original on 23 August Independent Saudi News". Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London.
The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France. Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy.
As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.
His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.
When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in , Stephen made an agreement with Henry of Anjou who became Henry II to succeed Stephen and guarantee peace between them.
The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.
The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.
This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism.
In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.
Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart" also known as "The absent king" , was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade , being captured while returning and pledging fealty to the Holy Roman Empire as part of his ransom, and defending his French territories against Philip II of France.
His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.
From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of Magna Carta.
Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons.
In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him. He met their leaders along with their French and Scot allies at Runnymede , near London on 15 June to seal the Great Charter Magna Carta in Latin , which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.
But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress. John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.
John's son, Henry III , was only 9 years old when he became king — He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over Magna Carta  and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.
His reign was punctuated by many rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on French courtiers thus restricting the influence of the English nobility.
One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.
Henry III's policies towards Jews began with relative tolerance, but became gradually more restrictive. In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.
Popular superstitious fears were fuelled, and Catholic theological hostility combined with Baronial abuse of loan arrangements, resulting in Simon de Montfort 's supporters targeting of Jewish communities in their revolt.
This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I.
The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful. Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.
He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.
Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.
This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.
In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.
While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this.
The king's enemies, including his cousin Thomas of Lancaster , captured and murdered Gaveston in Edward's downfall came in when his wife, Queen Isabella , travelled to her native France and, with her lover Roger Mortimer , invaded England.
Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. The king fled London, and his companion since Piers Gaveston's death, Hugh Despenser , was publicly tried and executed.
Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.
Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.
Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe.
His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.
This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.
Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in Although the Castilian crossbowmen killed many of the enemy,  the English gradually got the better of the encounter.
In spite of Edward's success, however, Winchelsea was only a flash in a conflict that raged between the English and the Spanish for over years,  coming to a head with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.
It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.
Military conflicts during this period were usually with domestic neighbours such as the Welsh, Irish and Scots, and included the Hundred Years' War against the French and their Scottish allies.
Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown.
The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in by Henry IV increased the turmoil.
Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth ,  who later became king though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in Henry V succeeded to the throne in He renewed hostilities with France and began a set of military campaigns which are considered a new phase of the Hundred Years' War , referred to as the Lancastrian War.
He won several notable victories over the French, including at the Battle of Agincourt. They married in Henry died of dysentery in , leaving a number of unfulfilled plans, including his plan to take over as King of France and to lead a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.
Henry V's son, Henry VI , became king in as an infant. His reign was marked by constant turmoil due to his political weaknesses.
While he was growing up, England was ruled by the Regency government. It appeared they might succeed due to the poor political position of the son of Charles VI, who had claimed to be the rightful king as Charles VII of France.
However, in , Joan of Arc began a military effort to prevent the English from gaining control of France.
The French forces regained control of French territory. In , Henry VI came of age and began to actively rule as king.
To forge peace, he married French noblewoman Margaret of Anjou in , as provided in the Treaty of Tours. Hostilities with France resumed in He could not control the feuding nobles, and civil war began called Wars of the Roses — Although fighting was very sporadic and small, there was a general breakdown in the power of the Crown.
The royal court and Parliament moved to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heartlands, which thus became the capital of England until Henry's cousin deposed Henry in to become Edward IV.
He defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross. He was briefly expelled from the throne in — when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick , brought Henry back to power.
Six months later, Edward defeated and killed Warwick in battle and reclaimed the throne. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London and died there.
Edward went a little way to restoring the power of the Crown. Edward died in , only 40 years old. His eldest son and heir Edward V , aged 13, could not succeed him because the king's brother Richard III, Duke of Gloucester declared his marriage bigamous, making all his children illegitimate.
Richard III declared himself king. Edward V and his year-old brother Richard were imprisoned in the Tower of London and were not seen again.
It was widely believed that Richard III had them murdered and he was reviled as a treacherous fiend, which limited his ability to govern during his brief reign.
Traditionally, the Battle of Bosworth Field is considered to mark the end of the Middle Ages in England, although Henry did not introduce any new concept of monarchy, and for most of his reign his hold on power was tenuous.
He claimed the throne by conquest and God's judgement in battle. Parliament quickly recognized him as king, but the Yorkists were far from defeated.
Most of the European rulers did not believe Henry would survive long, and were thus willing to shelter claimants against him. The first plot against him was the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion of , which presented no serious threat.
Using a peasant boy named Lambert Simnel , who posed as Edward, Earl of Warwick the real Warwick was locked up in the Tower of London , he led an army of 2, German mercenaries paid for by Margaret of Burgundy into England.
They were defeated and de la Pole was killed at the difficult Battle of Stoke , where the loyalty of some of the royal troops to Henry was questionable.
The king, realizing that Simnel was a dupe, employed him in the royal kitchen. Again with support from Margaret of Burgundy, he invaded England four times from — before he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Both Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick were dangerous even in captivity, and Henry executed them in before Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would allow their daughter Catherine to come to England and marry his son Arthur.
In , Henry defeated Cornish rebels marching on London. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite worries about succession after the death of his wife Elizabeth of York in Henry VII's foreign policy was peaceful.
He had made an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I , but in , when they went to war with France, England was dragged into the conflict.
Impoverished and his hold on power insecure, Henry had no desire for war. He quickly reached an understanding with the French and renounced all claims to their territory except the port of Calais, realizing also that he could not stop them from incorporating the Duchy of Brittany.
In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. Shortly afterwards, they became preoccupied with adventures in Italy.
Henry also reached an understanding with Scotland, agreeing to marry his daughter Margaret to that country's king James IV.
Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses. The treasury was empty, having been drained by Edward IV's Woodville in-laws after his death.
Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death.
He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government. In , the king's son Arthur , having married Catherine of Aragon , died of illness at age 15, leaving his younger brother Henry, Duke of York as heir.
When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed. Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism.
The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father. Henry's lavish court quickly drained the treasury of the fortune he inherited.
He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary.
In , the young king started a war in France. Although England was an ally of Spain, one of France's principal enemies, the war was mostly about Henry's desire for personal glory, despite his sister Mary being married to the French king Louis XII.
The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.
Meanwhile, James IV of Scotland despite being Henry's other brother-in-law , activated his alliance with the French and declared war on England.
While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat.
At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated. James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed. When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory.
Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children. The king became increasingly nervous about the possibility of his daughter Mary inheriting the throne, as England's one experience with a female sovereign, Matilda in the 12th century, had been a catastrophe.
He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus : "If a man taketh his brother's wife, he hath committed adultery; they shall be childless".
However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.
The timing of Henry's case was very unfortunate; it was and the Pope had been imprisoned by emperor Charles V , Catherine's nephew and the most powerful man in Europe, for siding with his archenemy Francis I of France.
Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation.
The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope.
It took a number of years for the separation from Rome to be completed, and many were executed for resisting the king's religious policies.
In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.
Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child. Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised.
They had a second, public wedding. Anne soon became pregnant and may have already been when they wed. But on 7 September , she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth.
The king was devastated at his failure to obtain a son after all the effort it had taken to remarry. Gradually, he came to develop a disliking of his new queen for her strange behaviour.
In , when Anne was pregnant again, Henry was badly injured in a jousting accident. Shaken by this, the queen gave birth prematurely to a stillborn boy.
By now, the king was convinced that his marriage was hexed, and having already found a new queen, Jane Seymour, he put Anne in the Tower of London on charges of witchcraft.
Afterwards, she was beheaded along with five men her brother included accused of adultery with her. The marriage was then declared invalid, so that Elizabeth, just like her half sister, became a bastard.
Henry immediately married Jane Seymour , who became pregnant almost as quickly. On 12 October , she gave birth to a healthy boy, Edward, which was greeted with huge celebrations.
However, the queen died of puerperal sepsis ten days later. Henry genuinely mourned her death, and at his own passing nine years later, he was buried next to her.
The king married a fourth time in , to the German Anne of Cleves for a political alliance with her Protestant brother, the Duke of Cleves.
He also hoped to obtain another son in case something should happen to Edward. Anne proved a dull, unattractive woman and Henry did not consummate the marriage.
He quickly divorced her, and she remained in England as a kind of adopted sister to him. He married again, to a year-old named Catherine Howard.
But when it became known that she was neither a virgin at the wedding, nor a faithful wife afterwards, she ended up on the scaffold and the marriage declared invalid.
His sixth and last marriage was to Catherine Parr , who was more his nursemaid than anything else, as his health was failing since his jousting accident in In , the king started a new campaign in France, but unlike in , he only managed with great difficulty.
He only conquered the city of Boulogne, which France retook in Scotland also declared war and at Solway Moss was again totally defeated.
Henry's paranoia and suspicion worsened in his last years. The number of executions during his year reign numbered tens of thousands.
His domestic policies had strengthened royal authority to the detriment of the aristocracy, and led to a safer realm, but his foreign policy adventures did not increase England's prestige abroad and wrecked royal finances and the national economy, and embittered the Irish.
Although he showed piety and intelligence, Edward VI was only nine years old when he became king in He took the title of Protector.
While some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in when many counties of the realm were up in protest.
Somerset, disliked by the Regency Council for being autocratic, was removed from power by John Dudley , who is known as Lord President Northumberland.
Northumberland proceeded to adopt the power for himself, but he was more conciliatory and the Council accepted him. During Edward's reign England changed from being a Catholic nation to a Protestant one, in schism from Rome.
Edward showed great promise but fell violently ill of tuberculosis in and died that August, two months before his 16th birthday. Northumberland made plans to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne and marry her to his son, so that he could remain the power behind the throne.
His plot failed in a matter of days, Jane Grey was beheaded, and Mary I — took the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favour in London, which contemporaries described as the largest show of affection for a Tudor monarch.
Mary had never been expected to hold the throne, at least not since Edward was born. She was a devoted Catholic who believed that she could reverse the Reformation.
Returning England to Catholicism led to the burnings of Protestants, which are recorded especially in John Foxe 's Book of Martyrs.
The union was difficult because Mary was already in her late 30s and Philip was a Catholic and a foreigner, and so not very welcome in England.
This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs.
Calais, the last English outpost on the Continent, was then taken by France. King Philip — had very little power, although he did protect Elizabeth.
He was not popular in England, and spent little time there. In reality, she may have had uterine cancer.
Her death in November was greeted with huge celebrations in the streets of London. After Mary I died in , Elizabeth I came to the throne.
Much of Elizabeth's success was in balancing the interests of the Puritans and Catholics; historian Robert Bucholz paraphrasing historian Conrad Russell, suggested that the genius of the Church of England was that it "thinks Protestant but looks Catholic.
Despite the need for an heir, Elizabeth declined to marry, despite offers from a number of suitors across Europe, including the Swedish king Erik XIV.
This created endless worries over her succession, especially in the s when she nearly died of smallpox. It has been often rumoured that she had a number of lovers including Francis Drake , but there is no hard evidence.
Elizabeth maintained relative government stability. Apart from the Revolt of the Northern Earls in , she was effective in reducing the power of the old nobility and expanding the power of her government.
Elizabeth's government did much to consolidate the work begun under Thomas Cromwell in the reign of Henry VIII, that is, expanding the role of the government and effecting common law and administration throughout England.
During the reign of Elizabeth and shortly afterwards, the population grew significantly: from three million in to nearly five million in The queen ran afoul of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , who was a devoted Catholic and so was forced to abdicate her throne Scotland had recently become Protestant.
She fled to England, where Elizabeth immediately had her arrested. Mary spent the next 19 years in confinement, but proved too dangerous to keep alive, as the Catholic powers in Europe considered her the legitimate ruler of England.
She was eventually tried for treason, sentenced to death, and beheaded in February Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history.
The symbol of Britannia was first used in and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe.
In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years.
This "golden age"  represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature.
The era is most famous for theatre , as William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre.
It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repulsed.
It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland.
The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly largely because of the periods before and after. It was a brief period of largely internal peace after the battles between Catholics and Protestants during the English Reformation and before battles between parliament and the monarchy of the 17th century.
England was also well-off compared to the other nations of Europe. Italian Renaissance had ended due to foreign domination of the peninsula.
France was embroiled in religious battles until the Edict of Nantes in Also, the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent.
Due to these reasons, the centuries long conflict with France was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign.
Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade. Elizabeth signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch and permitted Francis Drake to maraud in response to a Spanish embargo.
Drake surprised Vigo , Spain, in October, then proceeded to the Caribbean and sacked Santo Domingo the capital of Spain's American empire and the present-day capital of the Dominican Republic and Cartagena a large and wealthy port on the north coast of Colombia that was the center of the silver trade.
The Armada was not just a naval campaign. The build-up of land forces to resist a Spanish invasion has been described as an administrative feat of massive scope.
A survey taken in November and December showed , men in the militia, of whom 44, were members of the trained bands, being drilled and led by experienced captains and sergeants.
By May the London bands were drilling weekly. To give warning of the enemy's approach, beacons were built, manned twenty-four hours a day by four men.
Once the beacons were lit, 72, men could be mobilised on the south coast, with another 46, protecting London.
For the many Englishmen caught up in the Armada the experience must have been very profound and frightening.
Some shared the intimacy of beacon watching, hoping for the best, but ready to light their warning fires in case of the worst.
In foreign policy, Elizabeth played against each other the major powers France and Spain, as well as the papacy and Scotland.
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